What will be the board and C-Suite talent requirements? V2

What is the purpose of this article?

Enable the board of directors and C-Suite to have a discussion regarding their talent requirements and how to manage those requirements.

You can download a PDF of this article from:  What will be the board and C-Suite talent requirements V2

What are the critical learnings in this article?

  • A company without a competitively differentiated board of directors and C-Suite will not survive.
  • Define the current and future value contribution required from each role. Assess each candidate’s capabilities in terms of their historical impact on value and their future potential to impact value.

What type of company is this article appropriate for?

  • Public companies with no controlling shareholder or group of shareholders (e.g. no founders with dual class shares, no voting trust).
  • This article is not designed for private companies with a unanimous shareholders agreement reserving key decisions (e.g. CEO appointment, value creation/strategic plan approval) for shareholders or investors.

Your company’s future is uncertain.

  • The future global environment is uncertain. (e.g. technology, politics, the economy, climate change)
  • Both the future members of your company’s ecosystem, and their interactions are uncertain. Members of your company’s ecosystem include: customers, employees, local communities, society, and investors.
  • Becoming or remaining a large company requires understanding the problems and needs of customers who are willing and able to pay. These problems and needs often change over time.
  • Becoming or remaining a large company requires creating and maintaining competitively differentiated solutions and assets. These solutions and assets will be constantly changing and evolving in your company’s uncertain future.

Why do you need a talented and competitively differentiated board of directors and C-suite?

  • It is your company’s competitively differentiated talent which develops competitively differentiated solutions and assets based on a competitively differentiated understanding of your company’s ecosystem members.
  • Capital availability has grown dramatically over the past 10 years, and is close to unlimited. The availability of quality talent has had little growth.  The scarcest talent of all are those people who are able to grow and develop the capabilities of others. Great teams need great coaches and advisors.

What drives talent requirements for the board of directors?

The director can enable long-term success and value creation via the decisions they make; and the actions they take.

The decisions may include:

  • Appointment, termination, and compensation of the CEO.
  • Review and approval of the CEO’s value creation plan (often referred to as the strategic plan)
  • Ensuring there is a pool of successors for the CEO and the C-suite.

The value creation actions may include:

  • Representing the company with key members of the ecosystem such as government.
  • Introducing the company to the directors’ network of relationships such as: investors, potential employees (including CEO and C-suite successors), suppliers, business partners.

The directors must have history of enabling value creation.

  • Directors are like airline pilots. They aren’t needed when the company is smoothly executing the flight plan.  The directors are needed when there are problems, crisis and black swan events. E.g. replacing the CEO.
  • Each director needs a history of decisions which have resulted in major value creation. For example, past appointments of CEOs who successfully executed their value creation plans. If a director has no history of appointing CEOs, or approving C-suite members, then you need to carefully consider whether they should be nominated. Director education is insufficient.  You cannot learn to ride a bicycle by only reading about it.  You actually have to get on the bicycle and ride it, and perhaps fall many times.
  • If directors are expected to directly create value by their own actions, then they should have a history of actions which have created value.
  • The directors as a whole need relevant current understanding of: customers, target markets, adjacent markets, key components of the company’s ecosystem, and the global environment.

What drives talent requirements for the CEO?

There are three things only the CEO can do, and no one else in the company:

  • Create and maintain alignment of people with the purpose of the company.
  • Nurture the company’s values, morals, and ethics (often referred to as culture).
  • Hire the leadership team and ensure they work well together.

The CEO must be able to oversee the creation and execution of the value creation plan for the company, and modify the plan quickly as circumstances change.

What are the common talent characteristics of the board and C-Suite?

  • They must have fluid intelligence. Fluid intelligence is the capacity to think speedily and reason flexibly in order to solve new problems without relying on past experience and accumulated knowledge. The uncertain future means that decisions must often be made for which past experience and knowledge is obsolete.
  • They must be able to quickly learn new facts, knowledge, processes etc. and unlearn what is obsolete.
  • They must be passionately curious to understand the world around them.

What are the other sets of critical talent supporting the board and C-Suite?

  • World class teams need world class coaches. The athletes who win gold at the Olympics also have the best coaches in the world.
  • The CEO needs a coach or advisory board, as part of the ongoing development of the CEO. The board of directors cannot coach or mentor the CEO due to conflict of interest.  g. A director could not vote on something which the director has coached the CEO to create – the director would be voting on themselves.
  • The board chair also needs a coach or advisory board.
  • Some members of the C-Suite may also need coaches, especially if they are potential CEO successors

What are your next steps?

Create ongoing process for managing Board of Directors, CEO, and C-Suite talent.

  • Outline the members of your company’s ecosystem, including customers.
  • Describe the components of the global environment which may impact your company’s ecosystem.
  • Create multiple future scenarios for your company.
  • What are the implications for the talent you may need: board of directors, C-Suite, CEO advisory board, and Coach(es) for directors.
  • A company without a competitively differentiated board of directors and C-Suite will not survive.
  • Define the current and future value contribution required from each role. Assess each candidate’s capabilities in terms of their historical impact on value and their future potential to impact value.
  • Determine whether or not the board has a role and accountability for value creation. e.g. relationships with 3rd In private companies, the board and shareholders/investors often have a role and accountability for value creation. In many public companies the board does not have a value creation plan. The only value creation plan is the one the CEO is accountable for.
  • Prior to a new director being nominated, they should be a compensated board observer for one year. This allows them to be evaluated.

What further reading should you do?

Why are values, morals, and ethics important?


What is the purpose of your company?


Is your company planning to fail?


Traditional strategic planning dooms companies to failure.


How do you grow your company’s value? V3

What is the purpose of this article?

Enable a company’s leaders and investors to begin the discussion on how to prepare the company’s value creation plan.  This article outlines the principles that can be used to create and manage the discussion.  This article is not intended to be 100% comprehensive in both breadth and depth. The principles apply to any size company.

You can download a PDF of this article from: How do your grow your company’s value V3

What are the critical learnings in this article?

  • Growing you company’s value requires a competitively differentiated value creation plan, addressing the critical members of the company’s ecosystem e.g. customers, but not only customers.
  • Your company requires competitively differentiated talent in order to develop a competitively differentiated value creation plan. g. if the board of directors and C-Suite are less capable than the competitors’ boards and C-Suites, the company fails at value creation.

Who in the company’s ecosystem are you creating value for?

Ecosystem members could include:

  • Customers
  • Employees
  • Board of Directors
  • C-Suite
  • Shareholders
  • Suppliers and partners
  • The communities in which the company operates
  • Broader society

What is the value you enable your ecosystem members to achieve?

  • Value to customers might include: productivity, saving money, entertainment, improving health, and improving security.
  • Value to employees could include: compensation, enabling their life’s purpose, increasing their value to the current company as well as long-term market place value.

What value do ecosystem members provide your company?

  • Customers might provide: payment, recommending others to your company, and improving your company’s reputation.
  • The community may provide the company with the social license to actually operate. Natural resources companies in many countries now need to consult or even get the support of local communities

How do you share the value obtained by the company?

  • Sharing customer payments includes: deciding how much to charge customers, how much should employees be paid, (for example, should full time employees and full-time contractors be able to make a living income), how much should the board of directors be paid, how much should be allocated to dividends and share buy backs), how much should be spent on activities which improve local communities but generate no income, etc.

How do you decide on how to share the value?

  • The decision process may include consideration of: the company’s purpose, the company’s values, morals, and ethics, laws and regulations, expectations of shareholders and local communities.
  • The board of directors may make these decisions directly, through board approved policies, or delegate some of this decision making to the CEO.

How do you create value for ecosystem members?

  • The specific way your company creates value depends upon your company’s specific situation and characteristic.
  • The assets your company has available include: people (board of directors, C-Suite, employees, contractors, consultants, advisors), processes, technology, intellectual property, trade secrets, supplier/partner relationships, relationships with ecosystem members, and capital.  The reason I put capital last is because there is unlimited capital available for companies that are success at value creation.

What are your company’s challenges is achieving value growth?

Your company is facing competition, often from around the world.  Competitors are always working to be better than your company at:

  • Enabling customers to achieve value and perceive a superior value proposition.
  • Enabling talent (including the board of directors, C-Suite, employees, and contactors) to achieve value. This impacts how talent is attracted retained, developed, and exited.
  • Being productive or lower cost.
  • Attracting the best suppliers and partners.
  • Having better support from the ecosystem.

It can be difficult to assess the root causes of historical value growth.

  • Was success due to competitively differentiated talent and processes OR poor talent and processes but lucky?
  • Was failure due poor talent and processes OR competitively differentiated talent and processes but unlucky?

What are the two most important things to focus on to enable value growth?

  • Meeting the problems and needs of customers better than the competition. This is a combination of growing the number of customers and increasing the problems and needs which are being met. Without customers and without cash, the company does not exist.
  • The most important thing to focus on is the talent. The talent creates and executes the plans to achieve results. There are two groups of talent that must be competitively differentiated: the board of directors and the C-Suite. They company will fail if board the board of directors and C-Suite are less capable than the competition.

Your next steps to create your value creation plan.

In the next three months, you will understand the process to develop your value creation plan.  You’ll go from beginning to end, making whatever assumptions are needed to complete within three months.  Your focus will be on customers and talent – specifically the board of directors chair and the CEO.  In future, you’ll consider more members of your company’s ecosystem.

  • Document your company’s purpose and your company’s values, morals, and ethics. These will guide your decision making and execution.
  • Determine what your customers believe is the value they obtain from your company and how your company is competitively differentiated. Be specific regarding the problems and needs being addressed and the benefits they achieve. You’ll have metrics associated with then.
  • Define internal company customer metrics such as life-time profitability, and customer acquisition costs.
  • Outline future customer scenarios. Describe what is driving changes to: customer problems and needs, the number of customers willing and able to pay for your solution, what customers will be paying.
  • For each scenario, outline the changes and milestones for your company in the next five years in order to grow the total value customers achieve from you and thus grow your profits.
  • Determine the implications of the future scenarios on the required capabilities and characteristics of the board chair and CEO. This requires describing how the board chair and CEO enable company success in the above scenarios.
  • List the changes required to the board chair and CEO selection, assessment, development, and succession processes. This includes describing the type of coaches the board chair and CEO require.
  • Create the ongoing process to monitor, validate and update the value creation plan.
  • Determine which additional elements of the company’s ecosystem need to be included and which assumptions need to be validated as the value creation process evolves.

Further reading

There is overwhelming evidence that most companies are successfully executing their plans to fail and to not grow their value.


Do you understand your customers?


How can the board of directors create value?


What are the three types of talent successful companies require?

What is the purpose of this article?

To enable founders, investors, the board of directors, and the C-suite to discuss what type of talent is needed to create and maintain world-leading companies.  I recognize that many companies do not strive to be a world leader or leader in their own country.

You can download a PDF of this article from: What are the three types of talent successful companies require

How do you read this article?

This article uses the analogy of athletes that strive to win at the Olympics.  They seek to be the best in the world.

What are the three types of talent associated with global winners?

  • The team members. These are the people who actually have win the race. They must beat the competition in order to stand on the podium.
  • The trainers. They use a structured process to improve specific aspects of each team members skills e.g. using videos of the team members show what specific changes need to be made. The trainers are deep experts in specific skills.
  • The coaches. They focus on the members minds and mental state. For example, if an athlete cannot visualize in their mind what it looks like as they cross the finish line, they likely will never win. “People cannot do things they cannot imagine”1.  The athletes must also cope with frequent failure. Few win every single competition.

What are the characteristics of the journey to become a global champion?

  • There are fundamental differences between the team, the trainers, and the coaches. g. great coaches are rarely great athletes and great athletes are rarely great coaches.
  • It takes time to become a global champion.
  • People must have the ability to transform themselves, to learn, unlearn, and constantly improve.
  • No one stays a global champion forever.
  • The coaches and trainers change over time. Global champions are supported by trainers and coaches that are also the best in the world.
  • People need to have the potential to reach the next level. People don’t immediately jump to become global champions.
  • Not everyone will become a global champion. It is very competitive. Not everyone has the potential.
  • Very tiny changes in results differentiate global champions from 4th It could be a few hundredths of a second for an athlete.
  • Trying very hard, by itself, is not enough to become a global champion.
  • Luck also plays a role e.g. a leading coach becomes available; a competitor suffers an injury.

What are the three types of talent in your company?

  • The team is comprised of all of the company’s full and part-time employees. This includes everyone from the board of directors to front line staff.  The company is constantly developing the talent of its employees.
  • The trainers include external experts. (e.g. lawyers, accountants, consultants who are industry and functional experts), educational organizations, etc.
  • The coaches go by many names e.g. coach, strategic advisor, mentor.

What are the implications for you and your company?

  • In today’s virtual global economy, you may be competing against global champions, even if you’re in a local market. E.g. Nigeria’s largest ride sharing company is Bolt, based in Estonia, with a valuation of $4.3 billion.
  • It’s hard to become a global champion if your talent (team, trainers, and coaches) is not among the best in the world.
  • Talent around the world is constantly improving. The talent that was successful 20 years ago loses to today’s talent.
  • Growing the value of your company requires growing the value of your talent.

What are your next steps?

  • What is your company’s value creation plan: for the next 1-3 years; for the next 4-6 years?
  • What are the three types of talent you will need in the future?
  • What changes in talent are needed?
  • What is your ongoing process for acquiring, retaining, developing, and exiting your team talent?
  • What is your ongoing process for assessing and changing your training and coaching talent?


1 Peter Jensen (Olympic coach), Igniting the third factor, Toronto, Performance Coaching Inc., 2008, page 105

How can the shareholders agreement focus everyone on value? V2

What is the purpose of this article?

This article discusses how a shareholders agreement in a private company could help focus everyone on value creation and extraction.

I am not providing legal advice. Please consult a lawyer if you need legal advice on creating, reviewing, or updating a shareholders agreement or other legal governance documents.

You can download a PDF of this article from: How can the shareholders agreement focus everyone on value V2

What are two types of shareholders agreements

#1 USA (Unanimous Shareholder Agreement)

“The written agreement among all of the shareholders of the corporation can wholly or partly restrict the powers of the directors to manage, or supervise the management of the business and the affairs of the corporation”1

#2 Voting trust or pooling agreement

“Some shareholders of a corporation may choose to enter into voting arrangements such as voting trusts, pooling agreements or shareholder agreements under which they agree to vote their shares in a consistent manner.  Voting arrangement of this sort….do not have the effect of reducing the powers and liabilities of directors”1

What are some potential shareholder expectations regarding their investment?

  • limiting some decisions to only the shareholders e.g. hiring, termination, and compensation of the CEO; sale or wind down of the company; terms and conditions of future financing.
  • requiring shareholder approval of various documents: e.g. Board of directors mandate, board committee mandates, company policies, strategic plan, budget.
  • defining the process used by the shareholders to make the above decisions and approvals.
  • defining what information needs to be reported to shareholders at what time and in what format.
  • constraining the business e.g. limit geographical operations, which products and services may or may not be provided, pricing.
  • defining the process and constraints for shareholders to sell their equity.
  • defining the dispute resolution process. This process could result in a forced sale of shareholder equity.
  • describing the ways specific shareholders extract value from the company e.g. dividends; products and services; future sale of shareholder equity.
  • describing how shareholders will support the company e.g. introductions; financing guarantees.

The shareholders may have other expectations as well e.g. the purpose of the company

Some or all of the above expectations might be included in the USA.

How might the USA impact on value creation and value extraction?

I assume the company has a value creation plan and the shareholders have a value extraction plan.  The plans can be directed and constrained by shareholder expectations which are in the USA.

What are the risks of not documenting the shareholder expectations?

The short-term risk is a series of immediate disputes, which could harm both value creation and extraction.  For example, what if the shareholders don’t understand and agree that some shareholder will extract value through low-priced products and services while other shareholders extract value through dividends arising from high priced services to customers. How will management create and execute strategies when they are attempting to limit profits and grow profits at the exact same time?

The long-term risk is that shareholder expectations could change, especially when shareholders are companies.  The companies’ strategies for their investment could change and new executives representing the companies could have different expectations.

What are your next steps?

  • Shareholders should discuss and document their expectations regarding value creation and value extraction. Agreement and consensus are not always required.
  • The challenge is to figure out how to reconcile conflicting expectations. (e.g. one founding shareholder might want to stay with the company for the rest of her life.  Another founding shareholder might want to exit and sell her equity in 5 years for maximum value). This expectation setting process is carried out without lawyers and there is no legal document as an outcome.
  • Then lawyers review the shareholder expectations document. The lawyers point out potential issues and risks, which may result in further shareholder negotiations regarding expectations.  The shareholders decide among the legal options.
  • I assume that the USA will be one of the selected options. The lawyers must craft this.  The process of creating the legal USA may well results in more issues, requiring a negotiated update to the shareholder expectations document.
  • The lawyers will have to craft a dispute resolution process into the USA which is able to deal with future changes of shareholder expectations. Potential outcomes of dispute resolutions include: sale of the company, existing shareholders buying out some other shareholders.
  • The shareholder expectations document needs to reviewed on a regular basis and must be reviewed every time there is a potential new shareholder or change to an existing shareholder.


1 Barry Reiter, Bennett Jones LLP, Directors Duties in Canada, 5th edition, Page 95

Further reading

How can founders and investors create a shareholders agreement?


How profitable is angel investing? V2

What is the purpose of this article?

  • Share with you some fact-based profitability analysis from the U.S. angel community. I am not aware of similar detailed fact-based based analysis of the Canadian angel community.
  • Enable you to think about whether or not you want to make money as an angel investor and what you might have to do to make money.

You can download a PDF of this article from: How profitable is Angel Investing V2

There are three ways to look at angel investing profitability data.

  • As an overall asset class, considering a large number of angel investors.
  • As an individual angel group or angel fund.
  • The profitability of an individual angel investor, such as yourself.

You have the potential to make money as an angel investor if:

  • You or your co-investors have deep market knowledge of each portfolio company’s customers and market.
  • You devote significant time to due diligence.
  • You remain involved with the company post-initial financing.
  • You have the financial resources to create a diversified portfolio of at least 25 companies and to make follow-on investments.
  • You can wait 10 years to achieve a significant financial return.

How profitable has angel investing been in the period leading up to 2007?1

This study examined the results from of 1,137 exits ((acquisition, IPO, or company closure) from 539 angel investors in angel associations over a 20-year period, with most of the exits occurring after 2004. The average return was 27% (excluding out of pocket costs and assuming zero value for the investors’ time).

Due diligence had a large impact on investor capital returns.

  • Angels who spend less than 20 hours have an average return of 1.1X capital.
  • Angels who spend more than 20 hours have an average return of 5.9 X capital.
  • Angels who spend more than 40 hours have an average return of 7.1 X capital.

Investor knowledge of the portfolio company’s industry had a large impact on capital returns.

  • Investors with at least 14 years of relevant industry experience had double the capital returns of investors who did not have relevant industry experience.

Ongoing involvement with the portfolio company (e.g. coaching and mentoring, being the lead investor, serving on the advisory board or board of directors) has a large impact on investor returns.

  • Angels who interacted with the company twice a month achieved a 3.7X return.
  • Angels who interacted twice a year received a 1.3X return.
  • Interacting more than twice a month does not improve returns. The quality and type of interaction was more important than frequency.
  • 52% of all exits were at a loss.
  • 7% of the exits returned more than 10 times the money invested, and accounted for 75% of the total returns.
  • 39% of the investors had portfolios that lost money.
  • The top 10% of investors earned 50% of the returns.
  • 45% of the startups had no revenue when they received the angel investment.

How profitable has angel investing been in the period leading up to 2020? 2

The data scientists at AngelList analyzed 10,665 investor portfolios. The analysis showed that the realized and unrealized IRR for all of the investments is 15%. The 2007 study above only examined realized IRR.

The median IRR return for investors is heavily driven by the number of companies in their portfolio.

  • 50 company portfolios had a median IRR of about 10%; 11% of these investors lost money.
  • 20 company portfolios had a median IRR of about 7% ; 16% of these investors lost money.
  • 10 company portfolios had a median IRR of about 6% 32% of these investors lost money.
  • 1-5 company portfolios had a median IRR 0%.

What has been the performance of some individual angel funds in the U.S. in 2020?

The ACA (Angel Capital Association) Investor Insights report for 2020 shares insights from some large, long established U.S. angel groups.  My article does not name those groups.  You should refer to the report if you wish the names of the groups. The report is available to members of the ACA.

Angel group A analyzed 159 outcomes (exits and shutdowns) since 1997.

#1 A large portfolio is key to large returns

  • Equal sized investments in all the companies would have generated 4.8X return.
  • 3 of the 159 exits generated 74% of the total return.
  • Monte Carlo simulation showed that only 26% of investors with 5 company portfolios would have obtained 4.8X return
  • Even with a portfolio of 50 companies, there was only a 37% chance of achieving 4.8X return.

#2 Large returns require investors being able to wait 10 years.

  • It takes 4.5 years for investors to get their initial investment back. There are lots of failures in the first few years.
  • It takes 10 years to achieve 4.8X return. After 10 years, there is a very modest increase in returns.

Angel group B analyzed the return of their 27 members over 20 years.

  • A large portfolio is key to large returns. Investors with 25 company portfolios had 4.5 times the IRR return of investors with 1-4 company portfolios.

 Your next steps

  • Review your overall investment thesis e.g. what asset classes will you be investing in, why, and what expected returns (this includes volatility, and time to achieve returns)
  • Determine is angel investing would be a charitable activity or an asset class that is helping you achieve your overall investment thesis. Many angel investors are not interested in financial return, and their angel investments are not part of their financial return focused investment portfolio.
  • Define your angel investment thesis.
  • Determine if you have the skills, knowledge, and finances to create your own diversified portfolio or if you will invest with fund managers or if you will join a group of angel investors.
  • If you are investing with a fund manager you must do due diligence. It is key to analyze their cash returns over 10 years. I have come across many funds that include unrealized returns.  Unrealized returns are not cash in the bank. You will also have to assess their talent and processes.  If the funds returns are driven by only one exit, you have to determine if their overall results have been driven by luck or by knowledge, skills, experience, and processes.
  • If the fund manager is just starting their fund or has only been in operation for a few years, then you need to do more detailed due diligence, just as you would for any other startup. If you don’t have deep relevant experience in the fund industry, then you need some with that experience to work with you. Your due diligence focus will be on talent assessment and the fund’s investment thesis.
  • If you decide to invest via an angel investor group, you need to do due diligence. You need to asses whether the processes and talent will help you build and manage a profitable long-term portfolio. It is key to analyze the groups metrics and cash returns. One large U.S. angel group tracks 83 (yes 83) metrics for every investment made by a member. Some U.S. angel groups have detailed metrics regarding their members. If the group’s return is driven by one large exit, then you have to determine if their overall results have been driven by luck. Assess which members have deep relevant industry experience aligned with your angel investment thesis. Assess the angel group processes. If you don’t already have deep relevant angel investing experience, then you need help from those who have that experience.


1 Robert E. Wiltbank, PhD Willamette University, Warren Boeker, University of Washington, “Returns to Angel Investors in Groups, November 2007”


2 “How portfolio size affects early-stage venture returns”, Nigel Koh and Abfraham Othman, AngelList, https://angel.co/pdf/lp-performance.pdf

Further reading

Are you an angel investor or a gambler?


What is strategy and strategic planning? V2

What is the purpose of this article?

Enable founders, board directors, the C-Suite, and advisory board have a discussion about their company’s process for strategy and strategic planning.

You can download a PDF of this article from:  What is strategy and strategic planning V2

How do you define: strategy, strategic planning, and the strategic plan?

  • What is strategy? The facts, assumptions, and analysis of what successful future scenarios for the company could look like. A successful future means growth in value.  Value of the company and value for key members of the ecosystem.
  • What is strategic planning? The process to engage key members of the company’s current and future ecosystem members in order to discover a potentially implementable strategy.
  • What is the strategic plan? The strategic plan should be called the value creation plan. The strategic plan communicates the actions necessary to grow value and reach the successful future.

What are the questions the strategy must answer?

The facts, assumptions, and analysis of  what successful future scenarios for the company could look like. There are 7 sets of questions to this:

  • Who are the current and future members of the company’s ecosystem that are critical to the company’s success?
  • What is the vision for the future company?  How will the ecosystem perceive the company? Why will those critical ecosystem members enable the company’s success?  What metrics will those members use to assess value and success?
  • Who will be your future cash-paying customers? Why will they buy from your rather than the competition?  How are their problems and needs being better addressed by your solution than the competition? How are you enabling your cash-paying customers to achieve more value?  Why are customers buying from the competition rather than you? How many cash-paying customers will there be? What will be the market size. You may be in different markets with different customers. Customer needs will change and there will be new unmet needs. What will be the customers’ ecosystem? (e.g. Technology trends, demographics, politics, regulation, etc.)
  • What will customers perceive as the competitively differentiated value proposition? What will be the customer experience? How will customers perceive that your company meets their needs better than the competition?
  • Who will be your future competitors? What improved products and services will they be offering? Old competitors will likely disappear and new competitors emerge. (e.g. New ventures, entrants from adjacent markets). What will be the competitors’ ecosystem?
  • What are the characteristics of the future talent requirement? Board of Directors? Advisory Board? C-Suite? Coaches? Employees? Advisors and Consultants? Often skills and capabilities that brought the company to its current situation are not the skills and capabilities that are required for future success.
  • Is it clear what the future value of the company will be to key members of the ecosystem (e.g. shareholders, employees, and society) and how that value compares to the current situation?

Good analysis done by good leaders with good judgement often produces poor strategic decisions.1

A strategic decision is on of those relative rate major decisions that has a major business impact. E.g. bet-the-business investment; major M&A; major new product/service launch; business transformation’ etc. A McKinsey survey of 2,207 executives regarding the quality of their 1,048 strategic decisions revealed that:

  • Only 28% thought good strategic decisions were frequent;
  • 12% thought good strategic decisions were infrequent; and
  • 60% thought bad strategic decisions were as frequent as good strategic decisions.

What has the greatest impact on company performance? McKinsey found that it was the quality of the decision-making process. The % of company performance improvement due to:

  • Quality of the decision-making process: 53%
  • Industry/company characteristics: (e.g. consumer tastes, implementation resource capability) 39%
  • Quality and detail of analysis: 8%

The strategic decision-making process is much different from the normal day-to-day decision making.

What does the strategic planning process need to consider?

Strategic Planning: The process to engage key members of the company’s current and future ecosystem members in order to discover a potentially implementable strategy. Too often I’ve met companies where the consultants have said “We developed a great strategy but the company could not implement.” A strategy that cannot be implemented is not a great strategy. Strategic planning is a learning, and unlearning, process.

There are 8 sets of questions around strategic planning:

  • What is the purpose of your company?
  • Do you have the right talent involved in strategic planning? The decision makers must have a value growth mindset and capabilities in value creation.
  • What the process for answering the 6 strategy questions outlined above?
  • How will you get input from key members of your company’s ecosystem?
  • How will you get support form key members of your company’s ecosystem? E.g employees
  • What will be the indicators you are constantly monitoring to identify if immediate changes in your strategy plan are required due to changes in: customers, competitors, and the ecosystem. In today’s world, there is unlimited capital available to a competitor whose solution customers want to open up their wallet to.  Those competitors can rapidly grow in a few years and destroy your company.
  • Who is accountable for achieving the measurable results? g external customer metrics (How many potential customers have a problem/need for which they are willing and able to pay for your solution? How do the customers perceive they are getting more value from you than from the competition?) internal customer metrics (customer acquisition costs? customer lifetime profitability? By channel, partner, customer segment, and cohort?).
  • Does the strategic planning process result in the company’s value creation plan?

What are your next steps?

  • Document your current process for creating and maintaining your strategy and strategic plan.
  • Does your current process address the above questions and challenges?
  • What changes do you need to make to your process and the talent involved in the process. If talent cannot change themselves or be coachable, then replace the talent.
  • We live in turbulent and rapidly changing times. The strategy and strategic plan may need to change at any instant because facts and assumptions have changed, making decisions and plans obsolete. Every board meeting must begin with a discussion regarding the facts, assumptions, and analysis underlying the strategy and the strategic plan.  The CEO must have a similar discussion at the start of every meeting with her executive committee.


1 “The case for behavioural strategy”, McKinsey Quarterly 2010, Number 2

 Further reading

What is the purpose of your company?


How do you grow your company’s value?


Traditional strategic planning dooms companies to failure


“Does your board really add value to strategy?”, Professor Dieder Cossin and Estrelle Metayer, IMD Global Board Center


What is the difference between strategy and tactics?


Networking is key to value creation.

What is the purpose of this article?

Provide some insights into how networking can support value creation.

You can download a PDF of this article from:  Networking is key to value creation

What is networking?

Let’s focus on business networking.  The are other types of networking, such as finding a new job. The following article uses the example of why a CEO would network.

Business networking is creating and maintaining a group of relationships which can potentially help the success of the company and the CEO’s personal success.  The relationships are potentially of mutual benefit.  The group of relationships as a whole will be key to success, but not every single relationship will turn out to be valuable.  Relationships are based on trust and understanding.

 What are some of the potential networking benefits to the CEO?

Networking can provide value to the CEO, the CEO’s organization, and to society.  This can be part of the CEO’s life-long learning and un-learning.

  • Exchanging ideas and getting fresh ideas.
  • Sharing and gaining new knowledge.
  • Sharing and gaining different perspectives.
  • Figuring out and getting answers to a question.
  • Being able to find other people who can help e.g. if the CEO wants to learn about taking a private company public and wants to find other CEOs who have done this.
  • Benefits to the company e.g. a private company CEO staying in touch with potential strategic buyers.
  • Being broadly known and having a reputation in case the CEO needs to find a new job.
  • Developing a pool of potential board directors, C-Suite candidates, or CEO successors.
  • Meeting their purpose in life and values by helping others when there is no personal or company benefit e.g. mentoring MBA students.

Who might be in the CEO’s network?

This is based on the networking benefits the CEO wished to achieve. Networking members could include:

  • Leaders and advisors from a broad spectrum.
  • Leaders and advisors who have a deep knowledge of the company’s customers, marketplace, and ecosystem.
  • Ecosystem members such as: customers, investors, regulators, competitors, and journalists.
  • If doing MBA mentoring, then other mentors, university leaders involved in mentoring, etc.

What are the benefits to people for being in the CEO’s network?

These benefits are aligned with the benefits to the CEO.

  • Exchanging ideas and getting fresh ideas.
  • Sharing and gaining new knowledge.
  • Sharing and gaining different perspectives.
  • Figuring out and getting answers to a question.
  • Being able to find other people who can help.
  • Benefits to the company e.g. strategic buyers staying in touch with potential acquisition targets.
  • Board directors developing a pool of potential board directors, C-Suite candidates, or CEO successors.
  • Meeting their purpose in life and values by helping others when there is no personal or company financial benefit.

What is the greatest challenge to growing and maintaining your network?

Individuals are overwhelmed with electronic information.  2009 University of California, San Diego study estimated that the average American was receiving 100,000 words a day, about 34 gigabytes of data.1  A McKinsey Global Institute study in 2012 also estimated 100,000 words a day.2

People don’t have the time to:

  • respond to every email, text, LinkedIn msg, etc,
  • read all the articles
  • respond and connect with every connection request
  • have regular coffee or Zoom calls with everyone they know.
  • etc.

How do you maintain your network?

There are many ways to maintain your network of mutually beneficial relationships.

  • When you need some sort of help, advice, or discussion.
  • When you provide some sort of help, advice or discussion.

How do you grow your network?

  • Your network members proactively do introductions.
  • You ask your network members for introductions.
  • You do “cold call” requests for connecting.
  • You respond to “cold call” requests for connecting.

What are some approaches for maintaining your network?

  • One-on-one meetings: face-to-face, Zoom, phone.
  • Individual emails, LinkedIn messages, or texts.
  • Social media updates e.g. LinkedIn.
  • Broader emails, personal newsletter.

Your next steps

  • Define your personal value creation plan.
  • If you are a leader, define your plan to increase your company’s value.
  • Define your plan to increase your value to society.3
  • Determine how networking would impact the above three sets of values.
  • What are the kinds of people you need to network with over the coming years, based on the above value impact?
  • How much time will you allocate to networking?
  • Create a structured process for creating and maintaining a network of relationships. Your process will recognize that people will enter and leave your network and that the degree of closeness and engagement with individuals will change over time.


1 University of California, San Diego  “UC San Diego Experts Calculate How Much Information Americans Consume” Dec 9, 2009


2 Daniel H. Pink ,To sell is human, (New York: Riverhead Books, 2012), page 159

3 Exhibit 6 on page 8 of this McKinsey article raised the questions of “What you can be paid for” and “What the world needs”  These questions apply to you and an individual and to your company.


Further reading

If you’re going to ask someone to do an introduction


Leaders don’t understand the strategy for creating value.

Purpose of this article

The purpose of this article is to help board directors and the C-Suite determine if they understand: the strategy, how value is created, and industry dynamics.

You can download a PDF of this article from: https://koorandassociates.files.wordpress.com/2021/02/leaders-dont-understand-the-strategy-for-creating-value.pdf

Most company directors do not understand: the strategy, how value is created, and industry dynamics.

  • A McKinsey survey of board directors showed that most had little understanding of their companies. Only 16 percent said they strongly understood the dynamics of their industries, just 22 percent said they were aware of how their firms created value, and a mere 34 percent said they fully comprehended their companies’ strategies.1
  • I believe this lack of understanding reflects the lack of understanding of the CEO and C-Suite.
  • Directors are not stupid and lazy. The CEO and C-Suite are not hiding things from the board directors.  The leaders simply lack the company facts and knowledge to enable their understanding.

 Leaders’ lack of knowledge results in few major companies having sustained value creation.

  • McKinsey analyzed the world’s 2,393 largest corporations from 2010 to 2014. The top 20% generated 158% of the total economic profit (i.e. profit after cost of capital) created by those corporations.  This was an average economic profit of $1,426 million per year. The middle 60% generated little economic profit, an average of $47 million per year. The bottom 20% all generated negative economic profit, with an average loss of $670 million per year.2
  • Less than 13% of global companies had sustained value creation in the 1990s.3
  • 12% of public companies had sustained value creation from 2002 to 2012.4
  • Mark Leonard, CEO of Constellation Software, in his final annual CEO letter said: “According to the 2017 Hendrik Bessembinder study of approximately 26,000 stocks in the CRSP database, only 4% of the stocks generated all of the stock market’s return in excess of one-month T-Bills during the last 90 years. The other 96% of the stocks generated, in aggregate, the T-Bill rate over that period. This means that 4% of boards oversaw all the long-term wealth creation by markets during that period. Even more disturbing, the boards for over 50% of public companies saw their businesses generate negative returns during their entire existence as public companies.”5

Leaders’ lack of knowledge results in most companies not surviving.

Few major companies survive:

  • 16% of major companies in 1962 survived until 1998.6
  • Of the 500 companies in the S&P 500 in 1957, only 74 remained on the list in 1997. Only 12 of those 74 outperformed the 1957-1997 S&P index.  An investor who put money into the survivors would have done worse than someone who invested only in the index.6
  • 31% of Fortune 500 companies went bankrupt or were acquired from 1995 to 2004.7
  • 50% of the S&P 500 will not be on the list in 10 years’ time.8

 Most public companies will not survive.9

  • A Fortune 500 company will survive an average of 16 years.
  • The typical half-life of a North American public company is 10 years.
  • Global public companies with $250 million+ market cap have a typical half-life of 10 years.

Companies do not recover from crisis.10

  • 20% of companies grow from insurgency to incumbency, but then two-thirds of them stall out and less than 1 in 7 stall-outs recover.
  • At any given moment, 5%-7% of companies are in free fall or about to tip into it. Only10%-15% of companies pull out of free fall.

What are the missing facts and knowledge?

The following outlines some critical facts and knowledge the leadership must have.  This is not intended to be a comprehensive list.

#1 What is value?

  • Define value and how it’s measured.
  • In today’s purpose driven work, there are multiple stakeholders with different types of value expectations.
  • What is value to the customers? What problems and needs are urgent enough that they are both willing and able to pay for a solution?
  • Another value measure is economic profit(total profit minus cost of investor and lender capital) as a percentage of invested capital.
  • A critical value driver is the number of customers who believe they have an urgent problem or need that they are willing and able to spend money to address. Do these customers perceive that your company’s solution provides more value than the competition?

#2 How does the company create and preserve value?

There are two major ways the company enables value creation and preservation.

  • The first way is growth in the number of customers, growth in the number of problems and needs being addressed, and growth in what the customers are both willing and able to pay. The customers must perceive your company has a better solution that both the competition and the status quo.
  • The second way is retaining customers by ensuring they don’t perceive they’d be better off with a competitors solution or no solution at all.

Financial and human capital is allocated towards value growth initiatives and value preservation activities.

#3 What is the strategy?

The strategy must describe what is, how value is being created and preserved.

  • The customers, and their perceived urgent problems and needs for which they are willing able to spend money to address. How many of these customers are there?
  • How do customers perceive the competition?
  • Where is the financial and human resource capital being deployed?
  • What are the specific growth initiatives? What is the expected impact on customers and their spending?  What is the economic profit expected from each initiative?  Who within the company is accountable for: the changes in customer behaviour and the economic profit?
  • What capital and human resources are devoted to customer retention? What customer perceived weaknesses would be addressed? How was it validated that these perceived weaknesses would change customer buying behaviour? E.g. My wife and I own Apple iPhones which are expensive.  But that is not a competitive weakness.  We’re not going to buy a $100 Android phone.
  • What are the future scenarios? It is impossible to predict the future, therefore what is the company’s approach for being successful in a variety of emerging future scenarios?

#4 What are the industry dynamics?

First look at the historical trends leading up to the current situation:

  • How have customer problems and needs changed?
  • How has customer perception of your company changed relative to the competition over the years? What have competitors done to change this perception?
  • How has the ways in which customers interact with your company changed?
  • What new entrants have come in? Startups? Major players from adjacent markets?
  • How have market sizes changed? i.e. the number of customers?
  • How has the competition changed in terms of Mergers & Acquisitions or exits?
  • Why have competitors failed?
  • How have your benchmarking comparisons changed?

Then look at the external trends

It is impossible to predict the future, therefore you must consider scenarios, not just a single forecast.

  • What are the trends? Technology, Demographics? Economic? Regulatory?  Public expectations of company behaviour?  Political? Talent availability?
  • What are the implications of these trends? What will be the future problems and needs customers will be willing and able to spend money to address? How will customers expect to interact with your company? (I.e. how will the customer experience change)? How big will the market be? (i.e. how many customers?). Who will be the new competitors (i.e. startups, new entrants)? How will existing competitors respond?  What will be the M&A activity? How should you perform in your future benchmarking?

Your next steps

  • Build a list of questions, relevant to your situation, using the above questions as a starter.
  • Review your strategic plan including the supporting appendices.
  • What are the facts? What are the unvalidated assumptions?
  • What are the long-term implications of your findings?
  • What changes are need to your planning, monitoring, and risk management processes?


1 “Corporate Boards need a facelift”, Eric Kutcher, (McKinsey Partner) McKinsey website, May 4, 2018


2 Chris Bradley, Martin Hirt, and Sven Smit, “Strategy to beat the odds”, McKinsey Quarterly February 2018, https://www.mckinsey.com/business-functions/strategy-and-corporate-finance/our-insights/strategy-to-beat-the-odds

3 “Profit from the Core” by Chris Zook. 1,800 companies in seven countries with sales in excess of $500 million analyzed.  Criteria were: 5.5% after inflation sales growth; 5.5% real earnings growth; total shareholder returns exceed cost of capital.

4 Christoph Loos, CEO Hilti Group, Swiss AmCham Luncheon, September 1, 2015.  Analysis based on about 2,000 public companies in 2002 with revenues greater than $500 million.  Sustainable value creation defined as: real revenue growth exceeding 5.5% per year, real profit growth exceeding 5.5% per year, and earning cost of capital.

5 https://www.csisoftware.com/docs/default-source/investor-relations/presidents-letter/presidents-letter-april-2018-final.pdf

6 “Creative Destruction – why companies that are built to last, underperform the market”, by Richard Foster & Sarah Kaplan

7 “Unstoppable” by Chris Zook, 2007, page 7

8 “2018 Longevity Report” by Innosight Consulting

9 “Corporate Longevity”, Credit Suisse, February 7, 2017

10 “The founders mentality”, by Chris Zook and James Allen, 2016

Further reading:

Do you understand your customers?


Traditional strategic planning dooms companies to failure.


Focus your project on user and customer value achievement

Focus your project on user and customer value achievement

The two-fold purpose of this article is to:

  • Enable boards of directors and CEOs to better assess projects and potential project success.
  • Enable those preparing project presentations and business cases to increase the success of project success.

Projects which succeed in enabling users/customers to achieve value have a greater potential of achieving revenue and profits.

Looking back over the past 40 years, many, perhaps most, of the project presentations and business cases that I have led or have seen contained major flaws, which led to reduced or no benefits. The following outlines my current thinking, based on observations of countless initiatives and research.

You may download a PDF of this article from: Focus your project on user and customer value achievement

What is a customer value achievement project?

  • Create a sustainable scaling product/service which profitably enables users/customers (e.g. users are people doing searches on Google, customers are people paying money to advertise on Google) to achieve value in a changing competitive environment.
  • Many projects will not succeed, especially those innovating with new target users/customers, new user/customer problems, new channels, new partners, etc.

How to read this article

This article outlines the different components of the project starting with the oral presentation.

 The project has three phases

  • The startup phase, which concludes with the determination that there are a sufficient number of potential cash paying customers to create a scalable solution. Many projects will be terminated before this phase completes. The initial capital approval will be at most to complete this phase. Additional capital may be required during this phase, depending upon what is learned.
  • The getting ready to scale phase concludes with the business having the talent and cost-efficient scalable resources and activities in place. Additional capital approval(s) will be required for this phase.
  • The scaling phase, focuses on increasing the number of distribution channel and partners, combined with marketing and sales investments. Additional capital and resources may be required.

 The 20-minute oral presentation of your project

The purpose of the oral presentation is to demonstrate the leader’s:

  • In depth understanding of the project.
  • Ability to communicate complex ideas and concepts in an easy to understand manner.

The leader’s oral presentation will have 10 sections.

  • What is the problem and who has it (target users/customers)?
  • How will the users/customers see and achieve the benefits of your solution?
  • Why is now the right time to do this project?
  • What is the size of the market i.e. how many users have an urgent need and how much customer would be willing to save money?1
  • What is the product and/or service you are going to create?
  • Who is the project team and what is their relevant experience? The team may include advisors, consultants and partners.
  • What is the business model? e. how you are going to get users/customers and how will you make money?
  • Who is the competition and how are you unique?
  • What are the financials i.e. 24-month cash flow forecast by month as well as years 3-5 by year.
  • What are you asking for to launch the first phase of the project?

The outcomes of the project leader’s oral presentation

The main outcomes of the project leader’s oral presentation are that the audience will:

  • Support sending the project onto due diligence.
  • Have trust and confidence in the leader.
  • Have a clear understanding of who the users and customers will be, their urgent problems and needs, and the potential revenue from cash paying customers.
  • Know how the solution will meet the customers needs and problems.
  • Understand why users and customers will prefer this solution to the competitions.
  • Have confidence that the leader and her team have the relevant skills, and plans to close any skill gaps.
  • Trust that the leader will carefully manage the capital and resources based upon seeing a 24-month cash flow forecast, by month.
  • Understand that the initial project stages will consist of a series of experiments, prototypes, pilots, and phased releases reflecting the requirement to constantly validate user/customer problems as well as what the customer is actually willing to pay for.

The due diligence done on the project

The due diligence will include: review of material, calls/meeting with customers, and potential customers, calls. meetings with team members, and in-depth Q&A sessions with the leader and team. The written material for due diligence is in an online data room.

The outcome of due diligence is an IM (Investment Memo) which is the  recommendation as to whether or not to proceed.  The IM is based on the information provided by the project, information collected by the due diligence team, and due diligence team analysis and judgement.

The written material in the data room will include:

  • Who are your target user/customer segments? What is the user/customer market size?1 How did you validate your assumptions?
  • What is the customer’s perceived value proposition of your solution? How are you different from, and better than, the competition?  The value proposition includes all of the customers’ costs and benefits associated with adopting your solution, which includes any transition costs from existing solutions.
  • What are your customers’ expectations of their relationship with you? g., if it’s a software product, how often will there be updates with new features?  How easy will it be to install a new version?  Will customer service be a chatbot or a live person? Etc.
  • What will be your channels to the customer?
    1. Communications channels with potential customers?
    2. Sales channels which result in a sales transaction?
    3. Logistics channels which deliver the product or service to the customer?
  • Who are your key partners? A partner is more than a channel. A partner may be: enhancing your credibility due to their reputation; adding value to your solution due to their resources; or enabling you to close sales.
  • What are the key activities? Which processes and actions are required to manage partners, channels, and resources in order to enable customers to achieve their value proposition.
  • What are the key resources to enable customers to achieve their value proposition? These include: intellectual property, technology, people, contracts, financial and physical assets.
  • What is the cost structure to create and deliver the value proposition?
  • What are the revenue streams? These could include: subscription-based per person per month, free for a basic service, with multiple tiers of extra services with fees, etc.
  • What’s the talent required for the project? What are the gaps and your plans to address the gaps?  What are the project team member descriptions and how are their skills, experience, and network relevant to this project?
  • What is the 24-month cash forecast, by month, showing key milestones and accomplishments.
  • The oral presentation deck. Designed to support the oral presentation. Lots of visuals, with few words.
  • The written presentation deck

Ongoing project reporting

The following reporting is ongoing from startup through to the business scaling the solution

The written report will include:

  • New customer value achievement leading indicator (e.g. for Slack it was 2,000 team messages sent within 60 days).
  • New customer success metric (e.g. % of new customers achieving new customer value achievement indicator within 60-90 days).
  • Net Promoter Score.2
  • Customer churn.
  • Customer retention.
  • Customer acquisition costs.
  • Lifetime customer value.
  • Issue and problems – there are always problems and issues
  • What help is needed – help is always needed
  • 24-month cash flow forecast – actuals vs plan

There is a monthly review meeting 100% focused on issues, problems, and the asks for help.  The written report is distributed and read prior to the meeting.

Any requests for additional capital will require an updated Investment Memo,

Startup Phase

The additional reporting in the startup phase reflects that there may be many experiments, pilots/prototypes, and a series of evolving revenue generating solution, until the project determine whether there is a solution which meets the cash spending demands of a large enough number of customers and the needs of enough users.  What’s being done is often inefficient and even manual.

Reporting reflects what is being learned, what assumptions are validated or invalidated and what new assumptions are being made.

Getting ready to scale phase

The additional reporting in this phase is now focused on the efficient gaining of users/customers and the profitable meeting of their needs.  (e.g. The onboarding process in the startup phase may have had the CEO call each person who signed up on the website within 30 seconds.  This will be impractical in the long term) The reporting will reflect the talent, process, and technology changes required.

Scaling phase

The additional reporting will reflect the learnings and associated metrics arising from: new geographies, new distribution channels, new partners, etc.

Your next steps

  • Document your current project approval and project management process.
  • Compare your current situation to what I’ve outlined above.
  • Identify the critical improvement requirements and related assumptions.
  • Begin piloting the revised project approval and project management process to validate your assumptions.


1 Market size

What is TAM (Total Addressable Market)?

  • What would be the project’s revenues with their future solution if 100% of the customers demanding a solution to their problem bought the project’s solution. This assumes all potential distribution channels and partners
  • There is a critical difference between customer needs and customer demands. Customers have a large number of needs.  Demand is customers deciding that they will spend time, effort, and money to get a solution for what they believe is an urgent need.  Often this means that customers will spend less money to meet other needs.
  • Is the project’s TAM large enough to launch and grow the company? For example, the global smart phone TAM is huge, but the global TAM for smart phones that have a keyboard is tiny.
  • The best way to calculate TAM is with a bottom up calculation, starting with a clear description of the target customer segment, its needs, and then considering the subset of customers who will actually provide revenue, and the revenue per customer. Recognize not everyone in every country will be able to afford the solution.

What is SAM (Serviceable Addressable Market)?

  • This is the portion of the TAM that is within the reach the project’s distribution channels and partners, and your ability to deliver and support your solution. Geography may be a constraint. This still assumes 100% market share of those customers demanding a solution. SAM will change over time, as growth occurs in geography, the number of distribution channels and partners, and the volumes from each distribution channel and partner.
  • How will customers connect with the startup?  If they are seeking a solution, how will they find the project?  How will the project make customers aware of the solution?

What is SOM (Serviceable Attainable Market or Share of Market)?

  • SOM will be lower than SAM for two reasons: there will be competitors, and every customer who is demanding a solution may not actually buy a solution.

TAM, SAM, and SOM will vary at different points of the 5-year forecast.  TAM, SAM, and SOM will also change as the project validates assumptions by progressing through: initial assumptions, customers interviews, feedback from prototype in customers hands, feedback from initial revenue producing customers, feedback from MVP (initial revenue producing customers who are delighted from the initial set of value they achieve from the solution), customer feedback as solution capabilities are enhanced to provide value to a greater set of customers, etc.

2 NPS (Net Promoter Score) The single most important question is asking  “Would you recommend our solution to others?”  (Follow on questions could be “If so, why?  If not, why not?”) This metric is known as NPS.  What is your NPS? Above 0 is good. Above 50 is excellent. Above 70 is world class. How do you compare to your industry and competitors? What has been your NPS trend?

The Net Promoter Score concept was initially developed by Bain.  The following is a link to the Bain website homepage for Net Promoter Score, which contains several short articles:


The following is a quick overview of using Net Promoter Scores:





How can restructuring grow value? V2

The purpose of this article is to provide a framework for thinking about restructuring. Any size of company may need to restructure.

You can download a PDF of this article from:How can restructuring grow value V2

What are the different types of restructuring?

Restructuring is much larger change than the day-to-day continuous improvements being made in the company, or the pivoting (i.e. changes to the business model canvas1).

  • Merging with or acquiring a company.
  • Divestiture i.e. selling a subsidiary or major assets to a third party.
  • Spinning of part of the business and assets to create a new standalone company.
  • Changing the legal structure of the business.
  • Changing the financial and capital structure of the business e.g. common stock become worthless, bond holders take a write-off.
  • Turning around the company due to poor performance in the current market place.
  • Repositioning the company to a new marketplace.
  • Reducing costs.

Restructuring is often focused on short-term cost reduction, with workforce shrinkage playing a major role. There is the risk that restructuring addresses short-term issues but does not position the company for long-term value growth and preservation.

What is value?

How is value measured by different people and organizations?

  • Shareholders may look at share prices and dividends. Different shareholders have different expectations and metrics. Angel investors, venture capitalists, short-term hedge funds, private equity, and pension funds look at value differently.
  • Society looks at the value the company is providing to or extracting from society. Some shareholders, such as Blackrock and some pension funds are also starting to look at the value a company delivers to or extracts from society.  A common issue is the impact on climate change.
  • The CEO and C-Suite have very clear measures of value, which are their personal compensation plans.
  • Employees and other stakeholders have their own perspectives on value.

Who and what are the fundamental drivers of the decision to restructure?

  • The board of directors and C-Suite want to transform the company before revenue and profits are impacted. The leadership may perceive future risks.  This is the concept of fix it before it’s broken.  Few companies are this forward looking.
  • To achieve the growth strategy requires closing gaps in: talent, customer relationships, technology, intellectual property, and external partnerships.
  • There are assets (talent, customer relationships, technology, intellectual property, and external partnerships) that are not needed to achieve the growth strategy. These assets may be divested or spunoff.
  • The customers are driving the need to restructure. Customer needs have changed and thus the marketplace is shrinking.  Customer needs for phones with keyboards shrank, resulting in a major impact on Blackberry. Customer needs are changing and there are competitors better able to meet those needs.
  • The company’s debt burden may be destroying profits or the company is getting close to breeching covenants or may have already breeched covenants. Breeched covenants may result in major decision authority residing in third parties.
  • Major shareholders may be driving change. Hedge funds may want a large short term return on their investment.  Pension funds may want climate change addressed.
  • Regulators are driving change.
  • There is the opportunity to make internal changes which do not impact the strategy e.g. changes in legal structure to reduce taxes or risks.

What are the general stages of thinking?

  • The board of directors, CEO, and C-Suite need to have a fact-based description of what is driving the need for change, assess how different types of restructuring will impact the change drivers and impact value.
  • The very first step is to determine if there are the right people on the board and right CEO to conduct this assessment and make the appropriate decisions. For example, a complacent board of directors who have not stayed in touch with the evolving customer needs and market place that resulted in massive losses is clearly not the right talent.
  • The company needs the talent to address the current situation, not the talent that was need in a very different past. Every director and every CEO is not appropriate for any and all situations. The necessary changes to the board of directors and CEO must be made quickly.
  • The board and CEO must agree on the decision-making process. Restructuring may be a rare or unique decision.  The usual decision making process may not be
  • The most critical component of the strategy must be validated: the size of the market place demand and the customer needs.  Market place demand is the number of customers willing to pay to meet their needs.  For example, the number customers with needs for a keyboard based cellphone dropped. The single best measure of the degree to which meeting current needs is the NPS2 (Net Promoter Score).  If your customers are not recommending your solution, then you have a crisis.   The NPS must be supplemented with customer interviews.
  • The board and CEO must agree on the facts and assumptions regarding what is driving the need for restructuring. Any assumptions need to be quickly validated or invalidated.
  • The board and CEO must agree on the restructuring options and impact on the value. There should be a common understanding of what success and value will look like in the future.
  • Then set out the restructuring objectives.  These objectives will be broader than short-term financial targets and consider things such as: reputation, customer retention, employee morale & ability to attract employees in the future, the need for long-term investments, etc.
  • Assign accountability for achieving objectives to specific members of leadership.
  • Assemble a plan, which includes both short-term options (e.g. terminating current and planned consulting projects, eliminating discretionary spending, staff reductions) and longer-term options (e.g. continuing to invest in projects with clear business cases to grow and preserve value, continuing with selected innovation and trials, reviewing and revising the organizational structure.)

Your next steps

Prepare a plan for your specific situation, based upon the above framework.


1 The business model canvas is the documented story of who your customer is, why they buy from you, and how you make a profit. The story consists of both narrative text and numbers. For futher information go to: https://koorandassociates.org/the-startup-journey/what-is-a-business-model/

2 NPS (Net Promoter Score) The single most important question is asking  “Would you recommend our solution to others?”  (Follow on questions could be “If so, why?  If not, why not?”) This metric is known as NPS (Net Promoter Score).  What is your NPS? Above 0 is good. Above 50 is excellent. Above 70 is world class. How do you compare to your industry and competitors? What has been your NPS trend?  You can find links to more information about NPS in the Further Reading section.

Further Reading

The Net Promoter Score concept was initially developed by Bain.  The following is a link to the Bain website homepage for Net Promoter Score, which contains several short articles:


The following is a quick overview of using Net Promoter Scores: