What are your company’s values?

What is the purpose of this article?

Outline a list of questions to help discuss what the purpose of company values are and what should be the values.

You can download a PDF of this article from:

Click to access what-are-your-companys-values.pdf

What are values?

Values are the rules by which people make decisions about what they should or should not do.

Further reading:

Values, morals, and ethics  https://koorandassociates.org/values-morals-and-ethics/

Questions to consider

  • How do the board of directors, C-Suite, and every employee use your company values to guide decision making and behaviour?
  • How do your company values compare to the U.S. army values? https://koorandassociates.org/further-reading/values-u-s-army/
  • How do your stakeholders (e.g. employees, customers, suppliers, partners, community and society) perceive your company values?
  • How do your company values impact employee hiring and retention?
  • How do your company values impact customer recommendations any buying actions?

Your next steps

  • Survey your stakeholders to see how they perceive your company values. Determine the actions and behaviours which result in those stakeholder perceptions.
  • Compare the stakeholder perceptions to the documented values.
  • What are the gaps?
  • What are the implications of the gaps?
  • What is the impact of addressing some or all of the gaps?

 Further Reading

Why are values, morals, and ethics important? https://koorandassociates.org/values-morals-and-ethics/why-are-values-morals-and-ethics-important/

How to assess director and CEO candidates regarding values, morals, and ethics https://koorandassociates.org/values-morals-and-ethics/how-to-assess-director-and-ceo-candidates-regarding-values-morals-and-ethics/

Should leadership compensation be sustained by bailouts?

Should leadership compensation be sustained by bailouts?

 Should board director and C-Suite compensation and shareholder dividends be sustained by government COVID-19 bailouts?

 This is a question regarding values, morals, and ethics not a question of whether or not laws are being broken.

I’ve been reading about many companies receiving large government COVID-19 bailouts while leadership bonuses are paid and even increasing; shareholder dividends are continuing or in some cases increasing. I have read some startup CEOs posting that they have eliminated their personal compensation in order to support the team.

In this time of massive government financial support, should board directors reduce their compensation?  Should C-Suite compensation be reduced?  Should dividends be reduced? Should these savings be redirected to support junior employees or other stakeholders?

Should the leadership and shareholders be suffering a small amount of discomfort while many are unemployed and many small businesses are collapsing?  Should the leadership and shareholders help society and the rest of the team at their companies?

In 1981, the U.S. Business Roundtable published the following:

“Corporations have a responsibility, first of all, to make available to the public quality goods and services at fair prices, thereby earning a profit that attracts investment to continue and enhance the enterprise, provide jobs, and build the economy.” “Business and society have a symbiotic relationship: The long-term viability of the corporation depends upon its responsibility to the society of which it is a part.  The well-being of society also depends upon profitable and responsible business enterprises.”1

 Larry Fink (CEO of Blackrock – with close to $8 trillion of assets under management), in his 2018 letter to CEOs, said “To prosper over time, every company must not only deliver financial performance, but also show how it makes a positive contribution to society. Companies must benefit all of their stakeholders, including shareholders, employees, customers, and the communities in which they operate…..Without a sense of purpose, no company, either public or private, can achieve its full potential…..And ultimately, that company will provide subpar returns to the investors.”

What do you think is the moral and ethical thing to do?


1 Ralph Gomory and Richard Sylla, “The American Corporation”, April 2013, page 6, The Wall Street Journal http://online.wsj.com/public/resources/documents/50b74ca9c91e6TheAmericanCorporation11292012.doc.pdf

2 https://www.blackrock.com/corporate/investor-relations/2018-larry-fink-ceo-letter

Value, morals, and ethics

I have collected my current thinking regarding values, morals, and ethics into a separate section on my website.

 Values, moral, and ethics (VME) are a key component of a company’s long-term success.  A breakdown of VME within society risks social upheaval which may devastate businesses.

The January 2020 Edelman Global Trust Barometer1 has disturbing statistics:

  • 56% of people believe capitalism as it exists today does more harm than good.
  • Less than 20% of people agree the system is working for them.
  • Less than 1/3 of people in developed markets believe they and their family will be better off in five years time,
  • 66% of people do not believe that current leaders will be able to successfully address their countries problems.
  • 54% of people believe business serves the interests of only the few. 29% believe business serves the interests of everyone equally and fairly.
  • 57% of people believe government serves the interests of only the few. 30% believe government serves the interests of everyone equally and fairly.

6 surveys done in 2018 by Professors Michael Bang Petersen, Mathias Osmundsen, and Kevin Arceneaux2 revealed:

  • 24% of the American public agreed “society should be burned to the ground”
  • 40% of the American public agreed “we cannot fix the problems in our social institutions we need to tear them down and start over” and “when it comes to our political and social institutions, I cannot help thinking ‘just let them all burn’”.
  • Key findings include: people are so discontent that they do not care about truth; people deliberately share false and hostile rumours on social media with the goal ”to mobilize the audience in pursuit of chaos.”

My personal observation is that if people believe their interests are not being looked after by institutions and society, then the sense of frustration can lead to tearing them down.  I wonder if politicians, CEOs, and boards of directors understand the long-term implications of their actions to destroy the public’s trust in them.


1 Jan 2020 Edelman Trust Barometer, executive summary, https://www.edelman.com/sites/g/files/aatuss191/files/2020-01/2020%20Edelman%20Trust%20Barometer%20Executive%20Summary_Single%20Spread%20without%20Crops.pdf

2 Professors Michael Bang Petersen, Mathias Osmundsen, and Kevin Arceneaux  “A ‘Need for Chaos’ and the Sharing of Hostile Political Rumors in Advanced Democracies”.  In 2019 won the award for best paper in the Political Psychology division of the American Political Science Association.

 Link to my website section:


How to assess director and CEO candidates – regarding values, morals, and ethics. (V2)

There have been numerous corporate scandals, with questions as to “where were the directors?”  It is up to each board to establish a common understanding of, and commitment to, what they mean by values, morals, and ethics.  Based on this common understanding, the board can then assess director and CEO candidates. This document is a tool designed to enable discussion leading to that common understanding

This tool does not provide any recommendations or advice as to what are appropriate values, morals, and ethics. The focus on possible behavioural questions (i.e., can be confirmed via reference checking) to ask director and CEO candidates.  Skills or functional competencies are not addressed.  Each board should identify additional questions.  This tool is illustrative and not intended to be a comprehensive set of questions.

The nomination committee/board should have a discussion on each question and document:

  • What might be good, OK, or unacceptable answers.
  • Which answers would eliminate the candidate from further consideration.

Directors and the CEO should be passionately committed to the purpose of the company

What is the purpose of the company? Why does the company exist? The description of the purpose of the company should be positive and outwardly focused on how you benefit customers and society.  For example, Nike’s “authentic athletic performance,” rather than “sell lots of shoes made in China.”  Is the purpose of the corporation to make as much money as possible? How should the company benefit society?  Or, should it?

Larry Fink, in his 2018 letter to CEOs, said “To prosper over time, every company must not only deliver financial performance, but also show how it makes a positive contribution to society. Companies must benefit all of their stakeholders, including shareholders, employees, customers, and the communities in which they operate…..Without a sense of purpose, no company, either public or private, can achieve its full potential…..And ultimately, that company will provide subpar returns to the investors.”1

The passionate commitment to purpose will set the tone from the top and quickly percolate throughout the company.  The purpose is the foundation upon which values, morals, and ethics are based.

I do not have any suggestions as to how to assess a candidate’s passionate commitment to purpose.  It will be clear within a year if a director or CEO doesn’t have passionate commitment to the purpose – which presents a major decision for the board to make.

Which director decision has the greatest impact on long-term corporate value?

Many would advocate this decision is the appointment (or termination) of the CEO.  Let’s first consider some possible questions to ask each director candidate who would have to vote on CEO appointment or termination.

  • What is the most senior level position you have terminated?
    1. Why? Performance (i.e. impact on profit or value creation and preservation)? Non-compliance with laws, regulations or company policies? Ethics or values?
  • Looking back over your career, what’s an example of person you decided not to hire or promote, due to ethics or values?
    1. What were the ethics and values issues?
  • What is the most senior level person you either appointed or recommended for appointment?
    1. What were the three most important reasons for that decision?
  • As you look back over the people you have appointed or recommended for appointment, what was your greatest mistake? How did you determine it was a mistake?  How did your correct your mistake? What have you done differently since then, when appointing people, or recommending appointments?

Now, let’s look at the values, morals, and ethics questions that you could ask of both director and CEO candidates:

  • What is the most courageous business action you’ve taken, and what was the impact on company profit, your career, and your family’s financial situation?
  • What was the most difficult ethical business decision you have made, and what was the impact on company profit? What definition of ethics did you have in this situation?
  • What has been the greatest crisis you have had to resolve? What was your role?
  • When dealing with an issue, what is an example of how your probed deeper into the company to understand the causes of the issue?
  • What is the biggest issue or problem you’ve encountered where you wished you’d informed the board earlier?
  • What was the most significant issue regarding ethics, values or morals, which a subordinate or colleague brought to your attention? How did you deal with it?

The following questions address the beliefs a candidate has:

  • Should a company invest in a country, or have operations in a country, in which:
    1. Child labour is common.
    2. The rule of law does not apply i.e., the government or highly placed individual are not subject to the laws, and the judiciary is not independent.
    3. The press is not free.
    4. Doing business requires payments to government officials or other highly placed individuals.
    5. The government is not elected in a freely democratic process.
  • Should the company arrange its legal structure to minimize taxes, ideally to pay no taxes?
  • Should the company lobby governments to change laws to reduce company taxation?
  • What would be your answers for the first three questions if the country in question was your home country, such as Canada? If your answers differ, why do they differ?


1 https://corpgov.law.harvard.edu/2018/01/17/a-sense-of-purpose/

What are your values and morals? Survey Tool

The following is a survey tool designed to gain individual perspectives regarding values and morals.  This tool can be adapted to a specific company situation.  The tool must be used by a trusted third party in order to maximize the chances of getting valid and confidential input.

The tool can be used anywhere in the company, from front line staff to the board of directors, or controlling shareholders.

I have suggested two decision-making values (making more money and career progression) because I’ve perceived these as very important to some people.

Identify the values and morals based on your complete life i.e. 24 hours a day.  Note any differences between your complete life vs your work life.  The last two columns are solely regarding your work life.  In terms of importance, its fine if more than one value has the same importance (e.g. three values are #1)

The survey collects the following information

  • What are the company’s documented values and morals, if any?
  • Which values and morals are used by your leaders and colleagues?
  • Which values do you believe are moral?
  • What are the most important values you use throughout the year to make decisions and guide your actions? Personal financial success and career progression may be some of these.
  • What are the differences between your values vs what you perceive to be the values of your colleagues and leadership?


Value and related decision making, actions, behaviours Is this value, decision making, action or behavior a “moral” characteristic? Which values are most important to you? (#1, #2) Which do you perceive as most important to your work colleagues? Which do you perceive as most important to your management?






Making more money
Career progression

Society’s trust in corporate leadership and political leadership is low.

  • Only 15% of Americans aged 18-29 believe “things in the nation are headed in the right direction”.
  • Only 1 country of 38 countries surveyed had a majority of people believing that representative democracy was the only way to govern a country. Only 44% of Canadians had this belief.  Sweden (at 52%) was the only country with a majority belief in democracy.
  • 80% of Canadian believe that “The elites who run our institutions are out of touch with regular people”.
  • 26% of Canadian believe a board of directors, 25% of Canadian believe a CEO.

You may click to download a one page PDF with more facts Low trust in leadership

You may contact me to obtain more detailed reports and more insight into the facts.

This document supports the discussion of  Why are values, morals, and ethics important?


U.S. Army Values

Many of your companies have statements regarding company values.  It would be interesting to compare your company’s values with the values of the U.S. Army.

Two question that arises immediately are:

  • What is the purpose of having company values?
  • What are corporate leadership and employees supposed to do with those statements of values?

Values – U.S. Army

The U.S. Army Values document supports the discussion of  Why are values, morals, and ethics important?




Why are values, morals, and ethics important?


  • What are values, morals, and ethics?
  • How are they used?
  • How do they impact company value growth and preservation?
  • What role should they play in hiring, promotions, and terminations?
  • How do you understand your company’s position?

What are values, morals, and ethics?

People often use these terms interchangeably. The concepts are different, which can result in confusing sets of expectations. e.g. many board of director’s mandates mention meeting “highest ethical standards”, but what does that actually mean? Many in corporate leadership1 believe ethics means compliance with laws, regulations, and company policies.  Many in the broader public associate ethics with morals and doing what is right.

To illustrate the confusion: for a few years Apple Computer only paid .005% income tax on billions of Euros of profit in Ireland.  The CEO stated that what Apple did was alright because all the laws were followed.  Many people felt that paying .005% income tax was “not the right thing to do.”  As it turned out, the European Commission ruled in August 2016 that Ireland’s tax agreement with Apple was illegal and that Apple owed billions of income tax.

The following are my definitions.  You should have your own definitions.  You cannot have a discussion about VME (values, morals, and ethics) if everyone has different definition of what the words mean.

Values: Values are the rules by which people make decisions about what they should or should not do. Values have different importances, which is helpful when needed to trade off or balance one value versus other values. Values are what someone thinks and feels internally.

Morals: Morals are decisions, actions, and behaviours which people feel are right or wrong, good or bad.  Morals are actions and behaviours arising from one or more values.  Not all values are related to morals.  Morals are based on a broader perspective than just the individual. You are judged by others as to whether or not your actions are moral or immoral.  You make a decision based on what you believe is “the right thing to do.” Morals reflect external observable actions and behaviours.

Ethics: Ethical decisions, actions, and behaviours are based on following a document set of standards or principles.   Many companies and professions have a Code of Ethics.

VME should also tie back to the purpose of the corporation.2 Is the sole purpose to make as much money as possible, constrained by laws, regulations, and company policies?

How are values, morals and ethics used?

Values and ethics are used by individuals when making decisions regarding their actions and behaviours.

Corporate leadership makes decisions and recommendations within an ecosystem3 where stakeholders and third parties have VME with major differences and conflicts.  Corporate leadership uses their VME to manage the conflicts of interests within corporate leadership, and with stakeholders and third parties.

Lawyers would point out the fiduciary duty e.g. in Canada to act in the best interest of the corporation (fiduciary duty varies by country).  But is that the right thing to do?  Professor Didier Cossin makes the following observation, “The doctrine of maximizing profitability may be used as justification for deceiving customers, polluting the environment, evading taxes, squeezing suppliers, and treating employees as commodities. Companies that operate in this way are not contributors to society. Instead, they are viewed as value extractors. Conscientious directors are able to distinguish good from bad and are more likely to act as stewards for safeguarding long-term, responsible value creation for the common good of humanity. When a company’s purpose is in conflict with the interests of society, board members need to take an ethical stand, exercise care, and make sensible decisions.”4

Documented ethics arise from interactions between the company, stakeholders5, and third parties6. Companies, stakeholders, and third parties all lobby the government to change laws and regulations to benefit what they believe is important (i.e. their values and morals).  How should corporate leadership deal with the conflict of interest regarding laws and regulations which provide value to society vs providing value to the corporation?  Some people believe laws and regulations exist to protect the interests of society as a whole or protect those who cannot protect themselves.  Some companies have Codes of Ethics written to minimize legal risks to corporate leadership.

When, if ever, do “the needs of the many outweigh the needs of the few”?7

 How do values, morals and ethics impact company value growth and preservation?

Many companies have formal ESG (Environment, Social, and Governance) policies.  Commonly these are focused on corporate or shareholder value enhancement.  In other words, ESG is good for growing long-term profits and value.

But what do you do when ESG could reduce long term profits?

Some companies consciously decided to take actions which they believe is better for the broader society but may result in lower profits.  E.g. Vancity Credit Union (in Vancouver, British Columbia) pays its workers a living wage and expects its suppliers to pay their workers a living wage.  On the other hand, Loblaws shareholders, in an early 2018 Annual General Meeting, voted not to pay workers a living wage.

The value from mergers and acquisitions can be threatened when companies have different sets of VME. It can be extremely hard to change the values and moral behaviour of people.  Even ensuring compliance with a new set of documented ethical standards may be a challenge.

VME impacts the type of employees who want to join and stay with your company.  I have met MBA graduates who deliberately decide not to pursue the highest paying jobs, but rather focus on the purpose of the company and its VME.

Shareholders trust the board of directors to make the right decisions.  The board, in turn, delegates the bulk of authority to the CEO.  The board and the CEO must be able to manage a broad range of conflicts of interest, especially personal.  E.g. with average CEO tenure below 4 years, it can be a challenge for the CEO to focus on the long-term, rather than maximizing the value of short-term bonuses and stock options.  Directors have been known to question a merger when their own director roles are in jeopardy.

If the board and CEO have different sets of VME, then the CEO’s decision making, and tone setting for the company, will not be aligned with the board.

Corporate leadership, through their actions and behaviours, communicates what the acceptable VME are. It is important that the leadership, when making difficult decisions, communicates how those decisions are related to VME. Children by the age of seven have already developed a set of values and morals.8 They observe their parents and learn from their parents.

The most difficult decisions made by corporate leadership (e.g. times of crisis, re-organization, major merger, major change in strategy, CEO appointment or termination, etc.) often reveal what the true VME are.  It’s easy to talk about VME when it does not take major personal courage to make a difficult decision.

What role should values, morals, and ethics play in hiring, promotions, and terminations?

Warren Buffet said “You’re looking for three things, generally, in a person: intelligence, energy, and integrity.  And if they don’t have the last one, don’t even bother with the first two”.

You can teach new skills and provide new experiences to corporate leadership.  It can be very hard to change values, morals, and ethics, especially with leaders who have many years of inappropriate VME.

What do you do if you are a SME (Small Medium Enterprise)?9

All of the issues discussed above apply.  It can be more complex in a private SME, with major or controlling shareholders who have different VMEs from the founders or CEO.  VME can be simpler in a startup, with everyone in the same physical space as the founder(s) and learning VME directly from the founder.


Value, morals, and ethics are some of the underlying factors for business success and business failure.

Your next steps

To enable discussion with your corporate leadership, download the following one page slide:

Why are values, morals, and ethics important?

The board and CEO must decide if VME is important enough to warrant time investment by corporate leadership.

What is your current situation?

  • The following next steps are a series of questions, including a survey tool. The intent is to enable corporate leadership to understand the perspectives of various individuals regarding VME.  Once there is that understanding, you’ll then need to decide actions to take, if any.
  • Does corporate leadership have an agreed upon purpose for the corporation? Is the sole purpose to make money?
  • What are the definitions of VME used by your corporate leadership? If your company has documented values, how are they used?  What are employees supposed to do with the values?  How do you know how the employees are using the values, if at all?
  • What are the differences, if any, between VME during “working hours” vs non-working hours?
  • Do you know what the employee point-of-view is?
  • Does all of corporate leadership have the same view?
  • What are the difference between the employee and corporate leadership points-of-view?
  • Read and discuss the values of the United States Army. What are the differences between your company values and morals relative to the U.S. Army.  The Army explicitly identifies morals – do your company values identify morals? The Army values guide individual conduct 24 hours a day. Are your VME intended to guide decision making, actions and behaviours only during working hours or 24 hours a day?  Some would argue that the company has no business in what an employee does in their non-working hours.
  • Look back over the past 5 years. How have VME guided critical board and CEO actions?  g. during crisis, making important one-time decisions such as appointing or terminating a CEO.
  • What questions, if any, are asked of director candidates and CEO candidates to assess their understanding and commitment to the company’s VME? Which VME, if any, are a perquisite for hiring? Which violations of VME result in immediate termination or hold back promotion?
  • Use the VME survey tool to gather input from different groups of people regarding their VME views. Corporate leadership needs to discuss the findings.  If there are differences, determine what actions need to be taken.


1 Corporate Leadership definition: Board of directors, CEO, advisory board and C-Suite.

2 Purpose of the corporation definition: What is the purpose of the corporation and why does it exist?

Is the only purpose of the corporation to create wealth?  Is there a higher purpose, either to a community or to society?  Or you may conclude the only purpose is to create wealth for shareholders and the C-Suite.  Peter Drucker said: “Because the purpose of business is to create a customer, the business enterprise has two–and only two–basic functions: marketing and innovation. Marketing and innovation produce results; all the rest are costs. Marketing is the distinguishing, unique function of the business.”

3 Ecosystem definition: A business ecosystem is the network of people and organizations, including stakeholders and third parties directly and indirectly involved in the delivery of a specific product or service through both competition and cooperation. The idea is that each entity in the ecosystem affects and is affected by the others, creating a constantly evolving set and nature of relationships in which each entity must be flexible and adaptable in order to survive, as in a biological ecosystem.

4 “The four tiers of conflict of interest faced by boards of directors”, Professor Didier Cossin and Abraham Longze Lu, IMD Global Board Centre

5 Stakeholder definition: Stakeholders have an economic interest in the corporation: Shareholders, Non-equity capital, Customers/ users, Employees/ unions, Suppliers, partners

6 Third party definition: Politicians, Regulators, Third party standard setters (e.g. Proxy advisory firm, accountants, lawyers), Society

7 “The Wrath of Khan”, Dr. Spock, Star Trek

8 “Teaching young children morals”, Meri Wallace, Psychology Today, April 6, 2018

9 SME Definition: Industry Canada definitions (2018 May 9): Small business: < $5 million in revenue, < 100 employees; Medium business: between $5 million and $20 million in revenue, 100 to 499 employees.

Further reading

“Society’s trust in corporate leadership and political leadership is low”  koorandassociates.org  Society’s trust in corporate leadership and political leadership is low.

“Values – U.S. Army” koorandassociates.org Values – U.S. Army

“Why is trust critical for transformation” koorandassociates.org Why is trust critical for transformation success?


“What are your values and morals?”, koorandassocicates.org What are your values and morals? Survey Tool